Mary Norton wrote The Borrowers , featuring tiny people who borrow from humans. Philippa Pearce 's Tom's Midnight Garden has Tom opening the garden door at night and entering into a different age. The heroine of Charlotte Sometimes by Penelope Farmer is already shaken by her arrival in a girls' boarding school when she finds herself waking as another girl in the same bed, but decades earlier. She needs urgent help from nearby children to hide her cat and kittens. Roald Dahl wrote children's fantasy novels which were often inspired from experiences from his childhood, with often unexpected endings, and unsentimental, dark humour.
Fox , The Witches , and Matilda Starting in , Michael Bond published humorous stories about Paddington Bear. Boarding schools in literature are centred on older pre-adolescent and adolescent school life, and are most commonly set in English boarding schools. Ruth Manning-Sanders collected and retold fairy tales. Raymond Briggs ' children's picture book The Snowman has been adapted as an animation, shown every Christmas on British television. The Reverend. Margery Sharp 's series The Rescuers is based on a heroic mouse organisation.
Anthony Horowitz 's Alex Rider series begins with Stormbreaker It follows the coming of age of two children, Lyra Belacqua and Will Parry, as they wander through a series of parallel universes. The three novels have won a number of awards, most notably the Whitbread Book of the Year prize, won by The Amber Spyglass. Northern Lights won the Carnegie Medal for children's fiction in Rowling 's Harry Potter fantasy sequence of seven novels chronicles the adventures of the adolescent wizard Harry Potter. The series began with Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in and ended with the seventh and final book Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows in ; becoming the best selling book-series in history.
The series has been translated into 67 languages,   so placing Rowling among the most translated authors in history. While Daniel Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe in spawning so many imitations it defined a genre, Robinsonade , adventure stories written specifically for children began in the nineteenth century. The Victorian era saw the development of the genre, with W. Kingston , R. Ballantyne and G. Henty specializing in the production of adventure fiction for boys. In the years after the First World War, writers such as Arthur Ransome developed the adventure genre by setting the adventure in Britain rather than distant countries.
In the s he began publishing his Swallows and Amazons series of children's books about the school-holiday adventures of children, mostly in the English Lake District and the Norfolk Broads. Many of them involve sailing; fishing and camping are other common subjects. Biggles made his first appearance in the story The White Fokker , published in the first issue of Popular Flying magazine and again as part of the first collection of Biggles stories, The Camels Are Coming both Johns continued to write Biggles books until his death in , the series eventually spanning nearly a hundred volumes — including novels and short story collections — most of the latter with a common setting and time.
Geoffrey Trease and Rosemary Sutcliff  brought a new sophistication to the historical adventure novel.
An important aspect of British children's literature has been comic books and magazines. Amongst the most popular comics have been The Beano and The Dandy both published in the s. Important early magazines or story papers for older children were the Boys Own Paper , published from to  and The Girl's Own Paper published from until It was his job to give his family a home, food and clothes. Ballantyne , as well as Robert Baden-Powell , the inspiration for the Scout Movement , Between — there was 60 issues with stories about Biggles by W.
Johns ,  and in the s occasional contributors included Isaac Asimov and the respected astronomer Patrick Moore. Between and , Captain W. Johns contributed sixty stories featuring the female pilot Worrals.
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The Eagle was a popular British comic for boys, launched in by Marcus Morris , an Anglican vicar from Lancashire. Revolutionary in its presentation and content, it was enormously successful; the first issue sold about , copies. Eagle also contained news and sport sections, and educational cutaway diagrams of sophisticated machinery. Children's literature has been a part of American culture since Europeans first settled in America. The earliest books were used as tools to instill self-control in children and preach a life of morality in Puritan society. Eighteenth-century American youth began to shift away from the social upbringing of its European counterpart, bringing about a change in children's literature.
It includes what is thought to be the earliest nursery rhyme and one of the earliest examples of a textbook approaching education from the child's point of view, rather than the adult's.
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One of the most famous books of American children's literature is L. Children's reading rooms in libraries, staffed by specially trained librarians, helped create demand for classic juvenile books. Reviews of children's releases began appearing regularly in Publishers Weekly and in The Bookman magazine began to publish regular reviews of children's releases. The first Children's Book Week was launched in In that same year, Louise Seaman Bechtel became the first person to head a juvenile book publishing department in the country.
She was followed by May Massee in , and Alice Dalgliesh in The American Library Association began awarding the Newbery Medal , the first children's book award, in The young adult book market developed during this period, thanks to sports books by popular writer John R. The already vigorous growth in children's books became a boom in the s, and children's publishing became big business.
White published Charlotte's Web , which was described as "one of the very few books for young children that face, squarely, the subject of death". The s saw an age of new realism in children's books emerge. Given the atmosphere of social revolution in s America, authors and illustrators began to break previously established taboos in children's literature. Controversial subjects dealing with alcoholism, death, divorce, and child abuse were now being published in stories for children.
Maurice Sendak's Where the Wild Things Are in and Louise Fitzhugh 's Harriet the Spy in are often considered the first stories published in this new age of realism. Taylor in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry continued the tradition of the historical adventure in an American setting. Laura Numeroff published If You Give a Mouse a Cookie in and went on to create a series of similarly named books that is still popular for children and adults to read together. Lloyd Alexander 's The Chronicles of Prydain was set in a fictionalized version of medieval Britain.
Erik Werenskiold , Theodor Kittelsen , and Dikken Zwilgmeyer were especially popular, writing folk and fairy tales as well as realistic fiction. The translation into English by George Webbe Dasent helped increase the stories' influence. Swiss author Marcus Pfister's Rainbow Fish series has received international acclaim since By the s, literary realism and non-fiction dominated children's literature. More schools were started, using books by writers like Konstantin Ushinsky and Leo Tolstoy , whose Russian Reader included an assortment of stories, fairy tales, and fables.
Books written specifically for girls developed in the s and s. Publisher and journalist Evgenia Tur wrote about the daughters of well-to-do landowners, while Alexandra Nikitichna Annenskaya 's stories told of middle-class girls working to support themselves. Vera Zhelikhovsky , Elizaveta Kondrashova , and Nadezhda Lukhmanova also wrote for girls during this period. Children's non-fiction gained great importance in Russia at the beginning of the century. A ten-volume children's encyclopedia was published between and Vasily Avenarius wrote fictionalized biographies of important people like Nikolai Gogol and Alexander Pushkin around the same time, and scientists wrote for books and magazines for children.
Children's magazines flourished, and by the end of the century there were Realism took a gloomy turn by frequently showing the maltreatment of children from lower classes. The most popular boys' material was Sherlock Holmes , and similar stories from detective magazines. The state took control of children's literature during the October Revolution. Maksim Gorky edited the first children's Northern Lights under Soviet rule. With a children's branch, the official oversight of the professional organization brought children's writers under the control of the state and the police.
Communist principles like collectivism and solidarity became important themes in children's literature. Authors wrote biographies about revolutionaries like Lenin and Pavlik Morozov. Alexander Belyayev , who wrote in the s and s, became Russia's first science fiction writer. Today, the field is in a state of flux because some older authors are being rediscovered and others are being abandoned.
The Chinese Revolution of and World War II brought political and social change that revolutionized children's literature in China. Western science, technology, and literature became fashionable. China's first modern publishing firm, Commercial Press , established several children's magazines, which included Youth Magazine , and Educational Pictures for Children. Yuxiu encouraged novelist Shen Dehong to write for children as well. Dehong went on to rewrite 28 stories based on classical Chinese literature specifically for children.
The Chinese Revolution of changed children's literature again. Many children's writers were denounced, but Tianyi and Ye Shengtao continued to write for children and created works that were aligned with Maoist ideology. The death of Mao Zedong provoked more changes that swept China. The work of many writers from the early part of the century became available again. In came General Anthology of Modern Children's Literature of China , a fifteen-volume anthology of children's literature since the s. The series is considered representative of Brazilian children's literature and the Brazilian equivalent to children's classics such as C.
Lewis , The Chronicles of Narnia and L. Christian missionaries first established the Calcutta School-Book Society in the 19th century, creating a separate genre for children's literature in that country. Magazines and books for children in native languages soon appeared. Nobel Prize -winner Rabindranath Tagore wrote plays, stories, and poems for children, including one work illustrated by painter Nandalal Bose. They worked from the end of the nineteenth century into the beginning of the twentieth.
Tagore's work was later translated into English, with Bose's pictures. His stories were didactic in nature. The first full-length children's book was Khar Khar Mahadev by Narain Dixit , which was serialized in one of the popular children's magazines in Other writers include Premchand , and poet Sohan Lal Dwivedi. Bengali children's literature flourished in the later part of the twentieth century. Educator Gijubhai Badheka published over books in the Children's literature in Gujarati language , and many are still popular.
In , political cartoonist K. Shankar Pillai founded the Children's Book Trust publishing company. The firm became known for high quality children's books, and many of them were released in several languages. He wrote biographies of many historical personalities, such as Kapila Deva. In , the firm organized a writers' competition to encourage quality children's writing. One of the pioneering children's writer in Persian was Mehdi Azar-Yazdi. Originally, for centuries, stories were told by Africans in their native languages, many being told during social gatherings.
Stories varied between mythic narratives dealing with creation and basic proverbs showcasing human wisdom. These narratives were passed down from generation to generation orally. Most children's books depict the African culture and lifestyle, and trace their roots to traditional folktales, riddles, and proverbs. Publishing companies also aided in the development of children's literature.
Children's literature can be divided into categories, either according to genre or the intended age of the reader. A literary genre is a category of literary compositions. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content, or length. According to Anderson,  there are six categories of children's literature with some significant subgenres :. The criteria for these divisions are vague, and books near a borderline may be classified either way. Books for younger children tend to be written in simple language, use large print, and have many illustrations.
Books for older children use increasingly complex language, normal print, and fewer if any illustrations. The categories with an age range are these:. Pictures have always accompanied children's stories. Generally, artwork plays a greater role in books intended for younger readers especially pre-literate children. Children's picture books often serve as an accessible source of high quality art for young children. Even after children learn to read well enough to enjoy a story without illustrations, they like their elders continue to appreciate the occasional drawings found in chapter books.
According to Joyce Whalley in The International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature , "an illustrated book differs from a book with illustrations in that a good illustrated book is one where the pictures enhance or add depth to the text. Acting as a kind of encyclopedia, Orbis Pictus had a picture on every page, followed by the name of the object in Latin and German. It was translated into English in and was used in homes and schools around Europe and Great Britain for many years.
Early children's books, such as Orbis Pictus , were illustrated by woodcut , and many times the same image was repeated in a number of books regardless of how appropriate the illustration was for the story.
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One of the first uses of Chromolithography a way of making multi-colored prints in a children's book was demonstrated in Struwwelpeter , published in Germany in English illustrator Walter Crane refined its use in children's books in the late 19th century. Another method of creating illustrations for children's books was etching , used by George Cruikshank in the s.
Most pictures were still black-and-white, and many color pictures were hand colored, often by children. Twentieth-century artists such as Kay Nielson , Edmund Dulac , and Arthur Rackham produced illustrations that are still reprinted today. After World War II, offset lithography became more refined, and painter-style illustrations, such as Brian Wildsmith 's were common by the s. Mahony and Beulah Folmsbee, catalogs illustrators of children's books over two centuries.
Professional organizations, dedicated publications, individual researchers and university courses conduct scholarship on children's literature. Wolf, et al.
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Typically, children's literature scholars from literature departments in universities English, German, Spanish, etc. This literary criticism may focus on an author, a thematic or topical concern, genre, period, or literary device and may address issues from a variety of critical stances poststructural, postcolonial, New Criticism, psychoanalytic, new historicism, etc.
Results of this type of research are typically published as books or as articles in scholarly journals. The field of Library and Information Science has a long history of conducting research related to children's literature. Most educational researchers studying children's literature explore issues related to the use of children's literature in classroom settings. They may also study topics such as home use, children's out-of-school reading, or parents' use of children's books.
Teachers typically use children's literature to augment classroom instruction. Controversies often emerge around the content and characters of prominent children's books. The academic journal Children's Literature Review provides critical analysis of many well known children's books. In its th volume, the journal discuses the cultural stereotypes in Belgian cartoonist Herge 's Tintin series in reference to its depiction of people from the Congo. After the scramble for Africa which occurred between the years of and there was a large production of children's literature which attempted to create an illusion of what life was like for those who lived on the African continent.
This was a simple technique in deceiving those who only relied on stories and secondary resources. Resulting in a new age of books which put a "gloss" on imperialism and its teachings at the time. Thus encouraging the idea that the colonies who were part of the African continent were perceived as animals, savages and un human like.
Therefor needing cultured higher class Europeans to share their knowledge and resources with the locals. Also promoting the idea that the people within these places were as exotic as the locations themselves. Examples of these books include:. Eske Wollrad claimed Astrid Lindgren 's Pippi Longstocking novels "have colonial racist stereotypes",  urging parents to skip specific offensive passages when reading to their children. Criticisms of the novel The Secret Garden by author Frances Hodgson Burnett claim endorsement of racist attitudes toward black people through the dialogue of main character Mary Lennox.
The picture book The Snowy Day , written and illustrated by Ezra Jack Keats was published in and is known as the first picture book to portray an African-American child as a protagonist. Middle Eastern and Central American protagonists still remain underrepresented in North American picture books. Additionally, only 92 of the books were written by Africans or African Americans.
Latimer has criticized popular children's books for their renditions of people as almost exclusively white, and notes that Dr. Seuss books contain few ethnic minority people. The first black family did not appear in the series until the s, thirty years into its run. Writer Mary Renck Jalongo In Young Children and Picture Books discusses damaging stereotypes of Native Americans in children's literature , stating repeated depictions of indigenous people as living in the s with feathers and face paint cause children to mistake them as fictional and not as people that still exist today.
Barrie 's Peter Pan are widely discussed among critics. Wilder's novel, based on her childhood in America's midwest in the late s, portrays Native Americans as racialized stereotypes and has been banned in some classrooms. Lynn Byrd describes how the natives of Neverland in Peter Pan are depicted as "uncivilized", valiant fighters unafraid of death and are referred to as "redskins", which is now considered a racial slur.
The presence of empire as well as pro-colonialist and imperialist themes in children's literature have been identified in some of the most well known children's classics of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In the French illustrator Jean de Brunhoff 's picture book Histoire de Babar, le petit elephant The Story of Babar , The Little Elephant , prominent themes of imperialism and colonialism have been noted and identified as propaganda.
An allegory for French colonialism, Babar easily assimilates himself into the bourgeois lifestyle.
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It is a world where the elephants who have adapted themselves dominate the animals who have not yet been assimilated into the new and powerful civilization. Rey and Margret Rey 's Curious George first published in has been criticized for its blatant slave and colonialist narratives. Critics claim the man with the yellow hat represents a colonialist poacher of European descent who kidnaps George, a monkey from Africa, and sends him on a ship to America.
Details such as the man in colonialist uniform and Curious George's lack of tail are points in this argument. In an article, The Wall Street Journal interprets it as a "barely disguised slave narrative. Baum 's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. With many women of this period being represented in children's books as doing housework, these two books deviated from this pattern. Drawing attention to the perception of housework as oppressive is one of the earliest forms of the feminist movement.
Little Women , a story about four sisters, is said to show power of women in the home and is seen as both conservative and radical in nature. The character of Jo is observed as having a rather contemporary personality and has even been seen as a representation of the feminist movement.
It has been suggested that the feminist themes in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz result from influence of Baum's mother-in law, Matilda Gage , an important figure in the suffragist movement. Baum's significant political commentary on capitalism, and racial oppression are also said to be part of Gage's influence. Examples made of these themes is the main protagonist, Dorothy who is punished by being made to do housework.
Another example made of positive representations of women is in Finnish author Tove Jansson 's Moomin series which features strong and individualized female characters. In addition to perpetuating stereotypes about appropriate behavior and occupations for women and girls, children's books frequently lack female characters entirely, or include them only as minor or unimportant characters. Seuss , would typically be assigned the gender-specific roles of receptionists and nurses.
Milne , are primarily male, with the exception of the character Kanga , who is a mother to Roo. On the one hand Growing up with Dick and Jane highlights the heterosexual, nuclear family and also points out the gender-specific duties of the mother, father, brother and sister,  while Young Children and Picture Books , on the other hand, encourages readers to avoid books with women who are portrayed as inactive and unsuccessful as well as intellectually inferior and subservient to their fellow male characters to avoid children's books that have repressive and sexist stereotypes for women.
She also says that capitalism encourages gender-specific marketing of books and toys. She argues girls have traditionally been marketed books that prepare them for domestic jobs and motherhood. Conversely, boys are prepared for leadership roles and war. S; during that time, male characters outnumbered female characters by more than 3 to 2, and male animals outnumbered female animals by 3 to 1. I'm Glad I'm a Boy! I'm Glad I'm a Girl! The book informs the reader that boys are doctors, policemen, pilots, and presidents while girls are nurses, meter maids, stewardesses and first ladies. Mehdi Ghasemi draws attention to the ways Janaki Sooriyarachchi — the writer and illustrator of The Flying Train — validates feminine and masculine voices and visions and balances gender issues both in the story book's narratives and illustrations.
Cott, once said that "gender matters; that is, it matters that human beings do not appear as neuter individuals, that they exist as male or female, although this binary is always filtered through human perception. I should add that when I say gender, I am talking about meaning. I am talking about something in which interpretation is already involved.
A widely discussed and debated topic by critics and publishers in the children's book industry is whether outdated and offensive content, specifically racial stereotypes, should be changed in new editions. Some question if certain books should be banned,  while others believe original content should remain, but publishers should add information to guide parents in conversations with their children about the problematic elements of the particular story. Jenkins suggests that parents and educators should trust children to make responsible judgments.
Some books have been altered in newer editions and significant changes can be seen, such as illustrator Richard Scarry 's book Best Word Book Ever. Several versions of Little Black Sambo have been remade as more appropriate and without prejudice. Bruno Bettelheim in The Uses of Enchantment , uses psychoanalysis to examine the impact that fairy tales have on the developing child. Bettelheim states the unconscious mind of a child is affected by the ideas behind a story, which shape their perception and guides their development. Their environment and interaction with images in picture books have a profound impact on this development and are intended to inform a child about the world.
Children's literature critic Peter Hunt argues that no book is innocent of harbouring an ideology of the culture it comes from. She also attributes capitalism , in certain societies, as a prominent means of instructing especially middle class children in how to behave. Ausdale claims children as young as three have already entered into and begun experimenting with the race ideologies of the adult world. She asserts racist attitudes are assimilated  using interactions children have with books as an example of how children internalize what they encounter in real life.
International awards also exist as forms of global recognition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal, see Children's Literature journal. For the A. Byatt novel, see The Children's Book. For the song, see Children's Story.
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Library of Congress Collections Policy Statement. Library of Congress. Retrieved 1 June Twentieth-Century Children's Writers. Chicago : St. James Press. Project MUSE, doi Beautiful and inspiring. Set in northern India, Cherry Tree tells the story of a grandfather and granddaughter as they embark upon the challenging process of trying to grow a cherry tree.
The gentle patience required to grow the tree acts as a metaphor for the sweet relationship between this grandfather and his grandchild. Added bonus: the illustrations are simply stunning. Set in Malawi, Galimoto tells the story of a young boy named Kondi who is determined to build a toy vehicle all by himself — a galimoto. A great reminder of the importance of believing in oneself, no matter how daunting a task at hand. Written to help children navigate the experiences of loss and death, Goodbye, Rune will remind readers of any age of the importance of trusting close family and friends to help you come to peace with loss.
But with hard work, determination, and teamwork, Tia Isa and her niece just might manage to save enough. A sincere and sweet story, told through lyrical prose. Lalla lives in Mauritania, a Muslim country on the coast of West Africa. Growing up, she wants to wear a malafa — a brightly colored cover that Muritanian women wear in public — just like her mother and older sister.
Translated from Dutch, The Book of Everything tells the story of a young boy who uses his imagination to escape the abuse from his father. Imagining things that no one else can see, he uses these images to inspire him to finally stand up to his father and become happy.